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【期刊名称】 《刑事技术》
减肥食品中非法添加化学药物现状及检测技术研究进展
【英文标题】 Illegal Additives in Diet Products: Status and Identification Evolution
【作者】 王爱华任昕昕琚妍妍李娜宋歌董林沛黄健
【作者单位】 公安部物证鉴定中心{硕士},北京市现场物证检验工程技术研究中心{助理研究员}公安部物证鉴定中心,北京市现场物证检验工程技术研究中心焦作市公安局刑侦支队德州市公安局物证鉴定研究中心公安部物证鉴定中心
【分类】 司法鉴定学
【中文关键词】 保健食品;非法添加;化学药物;检测技术
【英文关键词】 diet products; illegal additive; chemical drugs; analytical methods
【文章编码】 1008-3650(2019)06-0530-05
【文献标识码】 A DOI: 10.16467/j.1008-3650.2019.06.012
【期刊年份】 2019年【期号】 6
【页码】 530
【摘要】

随着肥胖成为亚健康的第一因素,减肥类保健食品得到了迅猛发展,其非法添加问题也日益凸显。当前减肥类保健食品中非法添加的化学药物主要为食欲抑制剂、吸收抑制剂类、能量消耗类减肥药物,以及利尿剂、倾泻剂等有减低体重效果的药物。这些药物会导致心血管功能障碍、肝肾功能损伤、电解质紊乱等一系列副作用,严重者可导致死亡。相关的检测手段主要有电化学法、光谱法、质谱法、核磁技术、毛细管电泳、色谱法及各种技术的联用。本文对当前减肥类保健食品中非法添加化学药物的种类、危害及检测技术进行总结,以期为相关研究人员提供参考。

【英文摘要】

Diet products have been rapidly developed as obesity becomes the first factor of sub-health. Meanwhile, the illegal additives into diet products are emerging prominently. The chemicals added illegally into diet products are mainly of appetite suppressant, absorption inhibitors, energy consumption drugs, as well as diuretics, laxatives or other medication that can help lose weight. Illegal addition of chemicals may cause severe adverse reactions, e.g., cardiovascular dysfunction, hepatic/renal malfunction and electrolyte disturbance. Even, the deaths caused by diet pills have been reported frequently. Determination of weight-loss drugs has been commonly conducted with various methods including electrochemistry, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, NMR, capillary electrophoresis, chromatography and certain combination of relevant techniques. This paper summarizes the categories, hazards and detection technologies about the illegal added chemicals in diet products, aiming to provide some references for peer researchers.

【全文】法宝引证码CLI.A.1283709    
  
  

近年来,随着人们生活水平的提高和生活节奏方式,导致肥胖成为亚健康的第一因素,由此也促进的加快,日常饮食中大量高脂高油食物的摄入和运动了减肥类保健食品的迅猛发展。《中华人民共和国食量的减少,快节奏生活和工作压力下的不健康的生活品安全法》第三十八条规定:“生产经营的食品中不得添加药品。”第七十四条规定:“国家对保健食品、特殊医学用途配方食品和婴幼儿配方食品等特殊食品实行严格监督管理。”因此,作为特殊食品的保健食品,其生产经营应当更加严格,严禁非法添加药物。然而,一些不良商家在减肥类保健品中非法添加化学类药物,以达到增加减肥效果和虚假宣传的目的{1}。

1保健食品中非法添加化学类减肥药的种类及危害

目前,非法添加在保健品中的减肥类药物主要分三类:食欲抑制剂类药物、吸收抑制剂类药物、能量消耗类药物。此外,利尿剂类药物、轻泻剂类药物及其它有减低体重效果的药物也是减肥类保健品中经常非法添加的化学药物。

1.1食欲抑制剂类药物

这类药物大多是通过影响去甲肾上腺素、多巴胺、5-羟色胺等神经递质在下丘脑的合成、释放与再摄取,以调节食欲,改变摄食行为,从而影响体重。此类药物包括西布曲明、芬氟拉明、安非拉酮等,其中西布曲明是最常见的非法添加减肥药物。西布曲明是典型的食欲抑制剂类减肥药,美国FDA于1997年批准上市。2001年4月,西布曲明在意大利上市,2002年3月6日便紧急撤市,在此期间共收到50例不良反应报告(主要为心动过速、高血压及节律障碍,其中7例较为严重)和2例心脏骤停的死亡报告{2}。此后,欧洲药物评估机构便开始对其进行综合评估,但在此期间,包括英国在内的一些国家仍然在售,直至英国收到411份不良反应报告(其中95例较为严重,2例死亡),法国也收到99份报告(其中10例严重,无死亡事例)。美国FDA自1998年至2001年9月,共收到西布曲明的不良反应报告397份,其中143例为心脏节律不整,29例死亡{3}(其中19例为心血管原因,包括3名30岁以内的女性)。2009年,FDA公布了包括西布曲明、利莫那班、苯妥英、酚酞、布美他尼等在内的69种减肥类药物的禁止上市,并揭露其存在健康风险,例如高血压、癫痫、心动过速、心悸、心脏病发作或中风。西布曲明于2000年在我国获批上市。但因副反应的高发性,国家食品药品监督管理局在2010年10月30日发布通知,停止西布曲明制剂和原料药在我国的生产销售和使用。 Oberholzer等{4}的研究表明,西布曲明可导致大鼠肝脏纤维化。

1.2吸收抑制剂类药物

这类添加剂主要是通过抑制人体肠道对食物的消化和吸收,使之在进入血液之前就排出体外,达到减轻体重的目的。吸收抑制剂中最典型的为脂肪酶抑制剂。脂肪酶抑制剂的作用机理是使脂肪酶失去部分的分解能力,使部分脂肪在体内不能被分解和吸收,进而随食渣一起被排出体外{5}。常见的脂肪酶抑制剂有奥司利他、利莫那班、赛利斯他、西替利司他等。双胍类降糖药能减少胃肠道对糖的吸收,增加大便中脂肪及其他物质的排泄,同时增加周围组织对葡萄糖的利用,短时间应用有抑制食欲、降低体重的作用,也是非法添加的常见药物。吸收抑制剂类药物的危害主要作用于胃肠道,常见副作用为腹泻、油便、电解质紊乱、低血钾等{6}。FDA于2010年5月警告奥利司他存在可能引起严重肝损害的风险。

1.3能量消耗类药物

能量消耗剂一般为中枢神经兴奋药物,通过提高机体的基础代谢率,刺激脂肪的氧化、增加能量消耗来实现减轻体重的目的{6}。常见的能量消耗剂有麻黄碱、伪麻黄碱、去甲基麻黄碱、茶碱、甲基苯丙胺等。此类药物一般具有成瘾性。此外,甲状腺激素、生长激素等激素类药物可增加代谢率,使体重下降,但是,药理剂量的甲状腺激素虽可提高代谢率,降低体重,但同时也增加蛋白质分解,导致钙丢失及发生心血管功能障碍,对身体的损害远大于减肥的受益,故现仅用于甲状腺功能低下肥胖时甲状腺激素的替代治疗{7}。

1.4利尿剂类药物

利尿剂按照其作用部位和作用机理的不同,分为不同的类型,常见利尿剂有呋塞米、布美他尼、氢氯噻嗪、氯噻嗪、环噻嗪、甲氯噻嗪、氯噻酮、吲达帕胺等。利尿剂的作用机制主要为通过改变相关酶的活性或细胞膜的通透性,加速或抑制细胞的代谢,通过加速排出体内水分,造成体重减轻的表象{8}。利尿剂的副作用主要为呕吐、头晕、虚弱等,引发肾功能损伤,造成低钾血症等{9}。

1.5轻泻剂类药物不接我们电话 也不给拒接原因

轻泻剂是一种可以帮助肠道排泄的物质,通过润滑肠壁,刺激肠道蠕动,或者软化大便增加其体积等方法而起到帮助排泄的功效,从而减轻体重{10}。市售减肥类功能产品中添加的轻泻剂主要为酚酞。长期使用或过量使用酚酞可引起腹痛、腹泻、呕吐、电解质失衡(低钾血症、低钙血症、代谢性酸中毒或碱中毒)、脱水、吸收不良、蛋白失活胃肠病、脂肪痢、厌食症、体重减轻、多尿症、心律失常、肌肉无力、前列腺增生和组织病理学损伤{11}。

2保健食品中非法添加化学药物的分析检测技术

建立高效、灵敏的检测方法,实现对保健食品中非法添加化学药物的快速定性定量检测,是整顿保健品市场、打击犯罪、维护公众生命财产安全的重要保障。国内外相关文献报道了很多保健食品中非法添加减肥类药物的检测技术,有电化学法{12}、光谱法{13-15}、质谱法{16}、核磁技术{17-18}、毛细管电泳法及其联用技术{19-20}、色谱法及其联用技术{21-26}等。

2.1流动注射-电化学发光法

电化学发光(electrochemical luminescence, ECL)分析法是化学发光法与电化学相互结合的产物,具有灵敏度高、检出限低和线性范围宽等优点{27}。流动注射(flow injection, FI)是近20年才产生的一种新型的微量、高速和自动化的分析技术。FI作为一种强有力的样品处理技术,为ECL提供了一个非常好的控制手段。流动注射-电化学发光(FI-ECL)分析体系结合了二者的优势,具有仪器装置简单、灵敏度高、线性范围宽等优势。Wang等{12}搭建了一种新型流动的电化学发光池,在碱性Na2CO3-NaHCO3(pH8.0~12.0)缓冲体系中,实现对西布曲明的快速定量分析,在1.0×10-8~1.0×10-6 g/mL浓度范围内,线性系数达0.9995,检出限达到2.4×10-9 g/mL,并且重现性较好,1.0×10-6 g/m

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【注释】                                                                                                     
【参考文献】

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法小宝

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