查找:                      转第 显示法宝之窗 隐藏相关资料 下载下载 收藏收藏 打印打印 转发转发 小字 小字 大字 大字
【期刊名称】 《刑事技术》
纸张中可用于断代的常见化学品检验方法研究
【英文标题】 Examination of Common Used Chemicals for Paper Age-determining
【作者】 廉哲梁鲁宁邹积鑫尹宝华王蔚昕李志豪迟威杨瑞琴
【作者单位】 中国人民公安大学刑事技术学院{硕士}公安部物证鉴定中心{助理研究员}公安部物证鉴定中心公安部物证鉴定中心公安部物证鉴定中心公安部物证鉴定中心公安部物证鉴定中心
【分类】 司法鉴定学
【中文关键词】 纸张断代;荧光增白剂;蒽醌;施胶剂;填料
【英文关键词】 paper age-determining; F WA (fluorescent whitening agent); anthraquinone; sizing agent; filler
【文章编码】 1008-3650(2019)06-0483-07
【文献标识码】 A DOI: 10.16467/j.1008-3650.2019.06.003
【期刊年份】 2019年【期号】 6
【页码】 483
【摘要】

为提高纸张质量、降低生产成本,纸张的生产过程中需要加入各类化学品,这些化学品的种类和用量随着造纸技术的进步发生变化,可以成为一种时间指针。对纸张中的化学品进行定性定量分析,依据化学品在纸张工业中使用的上下限年代,可以推断纸张形成年代。本文对若干种纸张常用化学品的检验方法进行了综述,评价了这些方法应用于司法鉴定领域的可能性,最后提出了法庭科学领域纸张断代面临的主要问题和应对方法。

【英文摘要】

Chemicals are commonly applied by paper-making industry to improve the paper quality and reduce costs. Species and quantity of the chosen chemicals vary with the development of paper-making technology, making them able to indicate a time when they were of the then-conventional choices. Thus, qualitative and quantitative analysis of these chemicals can determine the age of relevant paper according to the time selecting the chemicals. In this paper, examination methods are reviewed about several chemicals commonly used into paper, with the evaluation on their possibility for forensic expertise to apply. Finally, the main problems and countermeasures are put forward of paper age-determining for forensic purpose.

【全文】法宝引证码CLI.A.1283721    
  
  

纸张制作年代是判断文件形成时间的重要依据。目前,除少部分书写或印刷有时间信息的纸张外,大部分纸张的制作年代主要依靠纸张纤维和制作工艺等进行推断{1-3},但是,纸张纤维和制作工艺的判断存在主观因素,且学术界对纸张纤维的使用年代存在争议,对该方法的权威性和精确性造成了影响{1}。近现代以来,为提高纸张质量、降低生产成本,纸张的生产过程中加入了各类化学品,如蒸煮助剂、消泡剂、脱墨剂、施胶剂、分散剂、色料、涂布助剂{4}等,这些化学品的种类和用量随着造纸技术的进步不断变化,是一种时间指针。对纸张中的化学品进行定性定量分析,依据这些化学品在造纸工业中使用的上下限年代,可以推断纸张形成年代。目前,这种通过理化分析进行纸张断代的方法在考古学、档案学等领域已得到初步应用{5-9},而法庭科学领域的相关研究较少,未见系统报道。本文对纸张中常见的若干种化学品的检验方法进行探讨,以期获得法庭科学领域文件形成时间鉴定的新思路。

1荧光增白剂(FWA)

荧光增白剂又称光学增白剂,该类化合物具有大π共轭结构,如苯乙烯基、萘环、三嗪环等,可吸收短波长光,并发射出可见荧光。天然纸张纤维一般呈现微黄至灰白色调,在纸张中加入荧光增白剂,在光照下既能反射可见光,又能吸收紫外光并发出蓝光,与黄色调互补,使纸张变为白色,同时提高纸张亮度。自上世纪三、四十年代荧光增白剂开始商业化后,各类荧光增白剂开始广泛应用于造纸工业中。纸张适用的荧光增白剂有双三嗪氨基二苯乙烯类、香豆素类、二苯并恶唑类等,其中双三嗪氨基二苯乙烯类最为常用,如荧光增白剂VBL(荧光增白剂85)、 VBA等。我国造纸业自20世纪70年代开始引入荧光增白剂{10}。

从文献报道看,目前造纸业常用的检测方法有白度法{11-12}、紫外灯照射法{13}、荧光光度法{14}、紫外分光光度法{15-16}和高效液相色谱法{17-18}等。国内外也建立了荧光增白剂的检测标准。GB/T 277412011《纸和纸板可迁移性荧光增白剂的测定》{19}提出了荧光增白剂的提取和检测方法,检测方法可以使用紫外可见分光光度法或高效液相色谱法,紫外可见分光光度法使用外标法进行定量,检测波长为348 nm ;高效液相色谱法使用反相色谱,配备紫外检测器检测,根据出峰保留时间和峰面积进行定性定量。出入境检验检疫行标SN/T 2901-2011《出口食品接触材料纸和纸制品荧光增白剂的测定液相色谱法》{20}规定,样品中的荧光增白剂使用甲醇萃取,高效液相色谱配备荧光检测器,定量方法与GB/T 27741-2011相同。总体上,荧光增白剂作为一类常见化合物,其检测方法已经较为成熟,可以为法庭科学检验鉴定提供很好的借鉴。值得注意的是,荧光增白剂种类较多,结构相近,必须对其准确定性后才能用作时间指针,因此液相色谱方法尤其是液质联用方法{21-22}可能成为最为实用的鉴定方法。

2蒽醌(AQ)及类似物

植物纤维原料主要含有纤维素、半纤维素和木素等,其中纤维素和半纤维素是制备纸浆需要的成分,而木素不利于纤维的交织,影响成纸强度,需要脱除。化学浆生产中,一般使用蒸煮的方法脱除木素,蒸煮过程中一般添加蒸煮助剂,如蒽醌、四氢蒽醌(THAQ)及钠盐、9-羟基芴等,这些助剂可以保护纤维素和半纤维素,同时可催化木素的降解,提高蒸煮效能。国际上自20世纪70年代开始广泛使用蒽醌,据报道{23-24},我国最迟自1978~1979年开始在造纸中推广使用蒽醌及其类似物。

蒽醌的检测方法有光谱法{25}、气相色谱/质谱{26}、液相色谱/质谱方法等。张敏生等{27}翻译了Currah{28}的报道,介绍了纸张中蒽醌的提取和检测,剪取10 g纸样装入索氏提取器中,使用三氯甲烷抽提(抽提时间可长达19 h),抽出物过滤后浓缩,然后浓缩液进行气相色谱/质谱分析,目标物特征峰为208,80,152,通过外标法进行定量。唐成国{29}开发了一种蒽醌类似物的气相色谱-质谱分析方法。邹良明等{30}建立了纸浆中蒽醌和蒽酮的高效液相色谱检验方法,该方法使用EP-C18色谱柱,流动相为甲醇/水,检测波长254 nm。Schneiderman等{31}开发了超临界流体萃取方法(CO2,8000 psi, 65℃)萃取纸张中的蒽醌,发现萃取效率远高于传统的索氏提取,提取物使用配备有电化学检测器的液相色谱进行分析,得到较好效果,通过对比发现,该方法比GC方法具有更高的准确度和灵敏度。总体上,蒽醌类物质的检测已有可行方法,气相色谱/质谱、液相色谱方法都可以成为法庭科学领域的鉴定方法。不同于纸浆,成纸中蒽醌含量较少,且可能与纤维存在吸附作用,提取较为困难。索氏提取需要较高温度和持续较长时间,超临界萃取需要专业设备,对法庭科学实验室具有较高要求,因此,需要对纸张中蒽醌的提取进行进一步研究,探索高效快捷实用的提取方法。

3施胶剂

为了提高纸张机械强度、耐渗透性等,需在纸中加入具有抗液性胶体物质或成膜物质(施胶剂),即施胶。纸张施胶的方法有两种,一种是内部施胶,将施胶剂加入造纸湿部,通过物理化学过程将其保留在纤维上;另一种是表面施胶,在造纸干部将施胶剂应用于纸张表面。随着造纸出现,劳动人民即开始采用淀粉胶对纸张表面进行施胶。1807年,德国Moritz lllig发明松香皂硫酸铝施胶体系,自此至1955年,造纸业一直使用皂化松香胶进行内部施胶,上世纪八十年代前,我国大多数纸厂仍使用松香加明矾的内部施胶体系{4}。这一时期,国际上开始开发以烷基烯酮二聚体(AKD)、烯基琥珀酸酐衍生物(ASA)为代表的中性施胶剂{4},美国于1968年发明ASA, 1972年用于纸张施胶,我国在九十年代开始推广使用这些新型施胶剂,进入21世纪后,国内一些厂家开始在表面施胶中使用AKD{32}。

3.1松香

松香是一类树脂状物质的复杂混合物,为提高性能,用于造纸时往往还会对其进行修饰,制成各种改性松香胶,不同时代使用的松香类施胶剂具有一定特异性,可以成为一种时间指针。造纸行业较少对成纸中的松香进行定性定量分析,化工、医药领域对松香的检测方法有较广泛的研究,刘治猛等{33}研究了马来海松酸的酯化,发现使用重氮甲烷进行甲酯化后产物结构单一,便于气相色谱分析,是一种理想的前处理方法,作者使用气相色谱/质谱方法对酯化产物进行分析,定性了多种松香类化合物,并建立和评价了该种松香的定量方法,发现该方法具有较高精密度。段文贵等{34}使用雷尼镍做催化剂制备了氢化松香,经检测这种改性松香已达到国标(GB/T 1402092),使用DEAE-Sephadex离子交换柱脱除杂质后,得到了较纯的氢化松香主成分松香酸,将这些组分溶于环己酮中,使用四甲基氢氧化铵甲醇溶液甲酯化,然后建立了一种气相色谱/质谱方法,对松香酸甲酯进行了定性分析,检出了13种松香酸加氢产物。李富贤等{35}建立了一种某药品中松香酸的高效液相色谱检验方法,使用C18色谱柱,流动相选用甲醇-3%乙酸(95∶5),紫外检测器测定波长241 nm,经考察,松香酸进样量在0.088~0.528μg区间与色谱峰面积呈良好线性关系,因此使用外标法可对样品中的松香酸进行定量,该工作是国内较早开展的松香的高效液相色谱检验方法。随后,我国医药领域陆续有使用液相色谱方法检验松香类化合物{36-38}的报道。从现有文献看,松香类化合物的检验在技术上完全可实现,

  ······法宝

法宝用户,请登录后查看全部内容。
还不是用户?点击单篇购买;单位用户可在线填写“申请试用表”申请试用或直接致电400-810-8266成为法宝付费用户。
【注释】                                                                                                     
【参考文献】

{1}潘吉星.中国造纸史[M].上海:上海人民出版社,2009.(PAN Jixing. Paper history of China[M]. Shanghai: Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 2009.)

{2}张秀清.敦煌文献断代方法综述[J].敦煌学辑刊,2008(3):8-17.(ZHANG Xiuqing. A review of dating method of Dunhuang documents[J]. Journal of Dunhuang Studies, 2008(3):8-17.)

{3}蔡梦玲,张美芳.基于纸张种类及内部结构开展档案真伪鉴定与断代的研究[J].档案学通讯,2017(1):76-80.(CAI Mengling, ZHANG Meifang. Research on authentication and dating of archives based on paper type and internal structure[J]. Archives Science Bulletin, 2017(1):76-80.)

{4}胡惠仁,徐立新,董荣业.造纸化学品[M].北京:化学工业出版社,2002.(HU Huiren, XU Lixin, DONG Rongye. Paper chemicals[M].Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2002.)

{5}TRAFELA T, KOLAR J, LICHTBLAU D A, et al. Nondestructive analysis and dating of historical paper based on IR spectroscopy and chemometric data evaluation[J]. Analytical Chemistry, 2007, 79(16):6319.

{6}STRLI? M, CIGI? I K, KOLAR J, et al. Non-destructive evaluation of historical paper based on pH estimation from VOC emissions[J]. Sensors, 2007, 7(12):3136-3145.

{7}CASTRO K, PESSANHA S, PROIETTI N, et al. Noninvasive and nondestructive NMR, Raman and XRF analysis of a Blaeu coloured map from the seventeenth century[J]. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2008, 391(1):433-41.

{8}易晓辉.古籍纸张年代测定技术研究进展[G]//文津学志编委会.文津学志:第六辑.北京:国家图书馆出版社,2013.(YI Xiaohui. Research progress of paper chronology in ancient books[G]//Editorial Board of Wenjin Academic Records. Wenjin academic records: section VI. Beijing: National Library of China Publishing House, 2013.)

{9}徐文娟.无损光谱技术在纸质文物分析中的应用研究进展[J].文物保护与考古科学,2012, 24(增刊1):41-44.(XU Wenjuan. Advances in the application of nondestructive spectroscopy in the analysis of paper historical relics[J]. Science of Conservation and Archaeology, 2012, 24(sup 1):41-44.)

{10}程德文.我国造纸用荧光增白剂的现状及发展建议[C]//中国造纸化学品开发应用国际技术交流会论文集.2001. (CHENG Dewen. Current situation and development suggestions of fluorescent whitening agents for paper making in China[C]//Papers of the international technical exchange on the development and application of paper chemicals in China. 2001.)

{11}钱荣敬,文明,刘钊,等.纸张用荧光增白剂的国内外标准及检测方法概述[J].纸和造纸,2015, 34(3):60-65. (QIAN Rongjing, WEN Ming, LIU Zhao, et al. Overview of standards and detection methods of fluorescent whitener for paper home and abroad[J]. Paper and Paper Making, 2015, 34(3):60-65.)

{12}隆言泉.制浆造纸工艺学[M].北京:轻工业出版社,1980:250-252. (LONG Yanquan. Pulping and papermaking technology[M]. Beijing: Light Industry Press, 1980:250-252.)

{13}屈鹏峰,傅武胜,刘文菁,等.纱布吸附-紫外灯照射法测定食品接触纸及其制品中荧光增白剂[J].中国食品卫生杂志,2016, 28(3):352-355. (QU Pengfeng, FU Wusheng, LIU Wenjing, et al. Determination of fluorescent whitener in food contact paper and its products by gauze adsorption-ultraviolet lamp irradiation method[J]. Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene, 2016, 28(3):352-355.)

{14}刘峻,秦紫明,左莹,等.荧光分光光度法检测食品包装用纸中荧光物质迁移[J].纸和造纸,2011, 30(3):57-60. (LIU Jun, QIN Ziming, ZUO Ying, et al. Fluorescence spectrophotometric detection of fluorescent substance migration in paper for food packaging [J]. Paper and Paper Making, 2011, 30(3):57-60.)

{15}刘荣琴,高磊红,王未肖,等.紫外分光光度法测定食品包装用纸中的荧光增白剂[J].广州化工,2013, 41(15):135-137.(LIU Rongqin, GAO Leihong, WANG Weixiao, et al. Determination of fluorescent whitener in food paper by ultraviolet spectrophotometry[J]. Guangzhou Chemical Industry, 2013, 41(15):135-137.)

{16}曾远娴,李依洁,谢丽欣,等.紫外分光光度法测定卫生巾中可迁移性荧光增白剂[J].广东化工,2018(10):65-66, 83. (ZENG Yuanxian, LI Yijie, XIE Lixin, et al. Determination of movable fluorescent whitener in sanitary towel by ultraviolet spectrophotometry [J]. Guangdong Chemical Industry, 2018(10):65-66, 83.)

{17}王艳,姚孝元,韩云辉,等.卷烟接装纸、成型纸中荧光增白剂ABP、VBL的HPLC测定[J].烟草科技,2007(11):40-44. (WANG Yan, YAO Xiaoyuan, HAN Yunhui, et al. Determination of fluorescent whitening agents ABP and VBL in cigarette paper and forming paper by HPLC[J]. Tobacco Science & Technology, 2007(11):40-44.)

{18}叶玲,陈树东,区硕俊,等.高效液相色谱法同时测定纸制包装材料中的11种荧光增白剂[J].应用化工,2015(10):1949-1952. (YE Ling, CHEN Shudong, OUShuojun, et al. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whiteners in paper packaging materials by HPLC[J]. Applied Chemical Industry, 2015(10):1949-1952.)

{19}中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫总局,中国国家标准化管理委员会.纸和纸板可迁移性荧光增白剂的测定:GB/T 27741-2011[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2011:1-5.(GENERAL ADMINISTRATION OF QUALITY SUPERVISION, INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, CHINA STANDARDIZATION ADMINISTRITION. Paper and board - determination of migratory fluorescent whitening agents: GB/T 27741-2011[S]. Beijing: Standards Press of China, 2011:1-5.)

{20}中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫总局.出口食品接触材料纸和纸制品荧光增白剂的测定液相色谱法:SN/T 2901-2011[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2011:1-3.(GENERAL ADMINISTRATION OF QUALITY SUPERVISION, INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA. Food contact materials for export-paper and paper products - determination of fluorescent brightener-liquid chromatography: SN/T 2901-2011[S]. Beijing: Standards Press of China, 2011:1-3.)

{21}杜志峰.食品包装材料荧光物质检测技术研究[D].广州:华南理工大学,2013.(DU Zhifeng. Study on fluorescent material detection technology for food packaging materials[D]. Guangzhou: South China University of Technology, 2013.)

{22}HELLEUR R. The analysis of optical brightening agents in paper samples using liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry[J]. Journal of Wood Chemistry & Technology, 2011, 31(1):42-57.

{23}杭州红旗造纸厂.烧碱-蒽醌法制麦草浆[J].科技简报,1978(12):23-25.(HANG ZHOU HONGQI PAPER MILL. Preparation of wheat straw pulp by caustic soda - anthraquinone process[J]. Briefing on Science and Technology, 1978(12):23-25.)

{24}杨凤清.蒽醌——亚铵法制浆造纸的初步实践[J].西南造纸,1981(4):24-28.(YANG Fengqing. Preliminary practice of anthraquinone-ammonium sulfite pulping and papermaking[J]. Southwest Paper Making, 1981(4):24-28.)

{25}林能镖,胡会超,柴欣生.一种快速测定蒽醌含量的可见光谱方法[J].中国造纸,2012, 31(6):14-18.(LIN Nengbiao, HU Huichao, CHAI Xinsheng. A rapid visible spectrometric method for the determination of anthraquinone content[J]. China Pulp and Paper, 2012, 31(6):14-18.)

{26}陈启钊,张桂兰.用气相色谱法和高压液相色谱法测定麦草烧碱-蒽醌法黑液中残留蒽醌[J].中国造纸,1989(6):43-46.(CHEN Qizhao, ZHANG Guilan. Determination of residual anthraquinones in wheat-straw caustic soda-anthraquinone black liquor by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography [J]. China Pulp and Paper, 1989(6):43-46.)

{27}张敏生.蒽醌含量的测定—用气相色谱/质谱法对浆型纸型材料及制浆液的分析[J].西南造纸,1980(4):124-129. (ZHANG Minsheng. Determination of anthraquinone contentgas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the separation of pulp-based paper materials and pulping fluids[J]. Southwest Paper Making, 1980(4):124-129.)

{28}CURRAH J E. Determining anthraquinone content. Analysis of pulp- and paper-type materials and pulping liquors by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry[J]. Tappi [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry](USA), 1979.

{29}唐成国.气相色谱-质谱联用分析蒽醌工作液的组成[J].化学研究与应用,2000, 12(3):278-281.(TANG Chengguo. Analysis of the composition of anthraquinone working solution by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry[J]. Chemical Research and Application, 2000, 12(3):278-281.)

{30}邹良明,刘延岭,邹堰柯.纸浆蒽酮及蒽醌的HPLC分析中色谱条件的优化[J].纸和造纸,2014, 33(7):56-58.(ZOU Liangming, LIU Yanling, ZOU Yanke. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for pulp anthraquinone and anthraquinone analysis by high performance liquid chromatography[J]. Paper and Paper Making, 2014, 33(7):56-58.)

{31}SCHNEIDERMAN M A, SHARMA A K, LOCKE D C. Determination of anthraquinone in paper and wood using supercritical fluid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection[J]. Journal of Chromatography A, 1987, 409(1):343-353.

{32}刘忠.造纸湿部化学[M].北京:中国轻工业出版社,2017:136-165.(LIU Zhong. Wet end chemistry of paper making[M]. Beijing: China Light Industry Press, 2017:136-165.)

法宝

{33}刘治猛,梁志勤,王定选.气相色谱法测定马来松香组分的研究[J].林产化学与工业,1991(4):279-287.(LIU Zhimeng, LIANG Zhiqin, WANG Dingxuan. Study on the determination of malay rosin components by gas chromatography[J]. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 1991(4):279-287.)

{34}段文贵,陈小鹏,周永红.自制氢化松香主要化学组成的GC-MS法测定[J].分析测试学报,2003, 22(1):5-8.(DUAN Wengui, CHEN Xiaopeng, ZHOU Yonghong. Determination of main chemical compositions of hydrogenated rosin by GC-MS[J]. Journal of Instrumental Analysis, 2003, 22(1):5-8.)

{35}李富贤,米彩峰,石会丽. RP-HPLC测定清毒素胶囊中松香酸的含量[J].中国中药杂志,2008, 33(9):1086. (LI Fuxian, MI Caifeng, SHI Huili. RP-HPLC determination of rosin acid in Qingtoxin capsules[J]. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 2008, 33(9):1086.)

{36}刘伟华.松香药材中松香酸的含量测定方法[J].医药论坛杂志,2011(24):46-47.(LIU Weihua. Determination of rosin acid in rosin medicinal materials[J]. Journal of Medical Forum, 2011(24):46-47.)

{37}王英锋,魏小燕. HPLC测定枫香脂碱提物中脱氢松香酸和松香酸的含量[J].中国中药杂志,2013, 38(1):57-59.(WANG Yingfeng, WEI Xiaoyan. Determination of dehydrorosin acid and rosin acid in alkali extract of liquidambar formosana by HPLC[J]. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 2013, 38(1):57-59.)

{38}王晓萍,崔小敏,李富贤,等.不同产地松香药材中松香酸的含量测定[J].陕西中医,2017, 38(2):259-261.(WANG Xiaoping, CUI Xiaomin, LI Fuxian, et al. Determination of rosin acid in rosin from different habitats[J]. Shaanxi Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2017, 38(2):259-261.)

{39}刘温霞,邱化玉.造纸湿部化学[M].北京:化学工业出版社,2006.(LIU Wenxia, QIU Huayu. Wet end chemistry of paper making[M]. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2006.)

{40}BOTTORFF K. New insights into the AKD sizing mechanism[J]. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 1993(1):86-95.

{41}KARADEMIR A, CHEW Y S, HOYLAND R W, et al. Influence of fillers on sizing efficiency and hydrolysis of alkyl ketene dimer[J]. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2010, 83(3):603-606.

{42}MCCARTHY W R, STRATTON R A. Effects of drying on ASA esterification and sizing[J].1986, 70(12):117-121.

{43}ISOGAI A.[Oral Session 2] Mechanism of paper sizing by reactive sizes: AKD, ASA and fatty acid anhydrides[C]//Presymposium of the 10th ISWPC.1999.

{44}NISHIYAMA M, ISOGAI A, ONABE F. Roles of reactive alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) in paper sizing[J]. Fiber, 1996, 52(4):189-194.

{45}王代启,胡开堂,宋诗莹. ASA在施胶过程中的化学行为[J].中国造纸,2006, 25(1):12-16.(WANG Daiqi, HU Kaitang, SONG Shiying. Chemical behavior of ASA in sizing process[J]. China Pulp and Paper, 2006, 25(1):12-16.)

{46}崔晖,李群,胡开堂,等. ASA施胶机理及其对阔叶木高得率浆施胶的几个工艺因素探讨[J].天津造纸,2009, 31(2):6-10.(CUI Hui, LI Qun, HU Kaitang, et al. ASA sizing mechanism and its technological factors for hardwood high yield pulp sizing[J]. Tianjin Paper Making, 2009, 31(2):6-10.)

{47}吴燕,浩婷,刘银.超细粉体在造纸工业中的应用[M].北京:清华大学出版社,2013.(WU Yan, HAO Ting, LIU Yin. Application of ultrafine powder in paper industry[M]. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2013.)

{48}姜红.纸张微量检材的仪器分析方法[J].中华纸业,2004, 25(11):32-33.(JIANG Hong. Instrumental analysis method for paper microanalysis[J]. China Pulp and Paper Making, 2004, 25(11):32-33.)

{49}崔连义.法庭物证中纸张检验的仪器分析法研究进展[J].光谱实验室,2012, 29(3):1486-1490.(CUI Lianyi. Advances in instrumental analysis of paper inspection in forensic science[J]. Chinese Journal of Spectroscopy Laboratory, 2012, 29(3):1486-1490.)

{50}尹宝华.纸张物证检验技术的现状及展望[J].河南警察学院学报,2011(5):124-126.(YIN Baohua. Current situation and prospect of paper evidence examination[J]. Journal of Henan Police College, 2011(5):124-126.)

{51}刘猛,余静,王继芬,等.纸张物证的分析检验方法[J].化学通报,2013, 76(7):612-616.(LIU Meng, YU Jing, WANG Jifen, et al. Analysis and inspection method of paper material evidence[J]. Chemistry Bulletin, 2013, 76(7):612-616.)

{52}王志国,汪聪慧,孙素琴,等.静电复印纸的FT-Raman光谱检验[J].刑事技术,2001(4):17-19.(WANG Zhiguo, WANG Conghui, SUN Suqin, et al. FTRaman spectrum test of electrostatic copy paper[J]. Forensic Science and Technology, 2001(4):17-19.)

{53}李玲玲,柴欣生,田迎新,等.样品预处理结合红外光谱分析鉴定纸张中的硫酸钡[J].中国造纸,2015, 34(4):39-42.(LI Lingling, CHAI Xinsheng, TIAN Yingxin, et al. Identification of barium sulfate in paper by sample pretreatment and infrared spectroscopy[J]. China Pulp and Paper, 2015, 34(4):39-42.)

{54}郭鹏,姜红.拉曼光谱检验烟用内衬纸的研究[J].中华纸业,2016, 37(12):53-58.(GUO Peng, JIANG Hong. Study on Raman spectroscopy for inspection of cigarette lining paper[J]. China Pulp and Paper Making, 2016, 37(12):53-58.)

{55}郭洪玲,权养科,陶克明,等. X射线荧光光谱法检验打印纸张的结果分析[J].刑事技术,2008(5):6-9.(GUO Hongling, QUAN Yangke, TAO Keming, et al. Analysis of the results of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for printing paper[J]. Forensic Science and Technology, 2008(5):6-9.)

{56}尹宝华,郭洪玲,林雷祥,等.基于理化检验的纸张物证的比对和分类研究[J].刑事技术,2017, 42(2):124-128.(YIN Baohua, GUO Hongling, LIN Leixiang, et al. Comparison and classification of paper evidence based on physical and chemical testing[J]. Forensic Science and Technology, 2017, 42(2):124-128.)

{57}杨明太,袁莉,戴长松. EDXRF法检测纸张及其墨迹微量元素[J].核电子学与探测技术,2012, 32(12):1353-1355. (YANG Mingtai, YUAN Li, DAI Changsong. Detection of Trace elements in paper and ink by EDXRF[J]. Nuclear Electronics & Detection Technology, 2012, 32(12):1353-1355.)

{58}王欢欢,程爱民,王治涛,等.甘肃武威博物馆馆藏大藏经用纸的相关工艺研究[J].中国造纸学报,2014, 29(2):33-37.(WANG Huanhuan, CHE NG Aimin, WANG Zhitao, et al. Study on the technology of Dazangjing paper in Gansu Wuwei museum[J]. Transactions of China Pulp and Paper, 2014, 29(2):33-37.)

©北大法宝:(www.pkulaw.cn)专业提供法律信息、法学知识和法律软件领域各类解决方案。北大法宝为您提供丰富的参考资料,正式引用法规条文时请与标准文本核对
欢迎查看所有产品和服务。法宝快讯:如何快速找到您需要的检索结果?    法宝V5有何新特色?
扫码阅读
本篇【法宝引证码CLI.A.1283721      关注法宝动态:  

法宝联想
【相似文献】

热门视频更多